Outlands College of Heralds
From the office of the Rampart Herald
Pendar the Bard - 10 Magnifico - Los Lunas, NM 87031 - (505) 866-4369

Letters of comment were received from Master Da'ud ibn Auda, al-Jamal Herald; Master Gawain of Miskbridge, Green Anchor Herald; Margaret Hepburn, deputy herald, Shire of Scorpions Hollow; the Caer Galen Commenting group which consisted of Baron Louis-Philippe Mitouard, Cat's Paw Herald Extraordinary, Baronessa Francesca di Pavia, Pursuivant, Regana van Kortrijk, Caer Galen PE, Frederigo de Grenada, Alisaundre la Coutourière; and the Trefoil Consortium which consisted of La Doña Dulcinea Margarita Teresa Velázquez de Ribera, Trefoil Pursuivant, M'Lord Donnal Vida, Cornet, M'Lord Mehangle of House Cross and Panther, Cornet.

Line Emblazon Sheet
Color Emblazon Sheet

February 2002 Letter of Presentation
April 2002 Letter of Intent
August 2002 LoAR Results
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  1. Alessandra da Monte. New Name and Device. Per bend sinister dancetty purpure and Or, a sun and a trimount counterchanged.

  2. Caerthe, Barony of
    "Alessandra" is found on a website linked from the College of Saint Gabriel titled Italian Renaissance Women's Names by Rhian Lyth of Blackmoor Vale (Jo Lori Drake). http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/rhian/italian.html It is a list of Italian feminine names from Florence in the 14th and 15th centuries drawn from The Society of Renaissance Florence: A Documentary Study (ed. Gene Brukerm New York: Harper Torchbooks, Harper and Row, Inc.), which is a collection of diaries and documents of the period, and from The Autobiography of Benevenuto Cellini, as published by Penguin Books. The byname, "da Monte" is documented using another St. Gabriel website titled Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names by Arval Benicoeur (Josh Mittleman) and Talan Gwynek (Brian M. Scott). http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/ She will allow changes and is most interested in having her name be authentic for the language/culture. Will the fact that the line of division doesn't actually connect to the corner in sinister chief require the device to be redrawn? Can a trimount be free floating like this or does it have to be issuant from base?

    [al-Jamal] - (Device): "SCA restricts the use of "dancetty" to two-sided ordinaries which are indented "in synch" so that they zig zag, or "dance" across the field. Fields so divided are blazoned as *indented*. That the trimount is *couped* needs to be noted in the blazon, as its default is "issuant from base". The fact that the line of division does not connect to the corner of the chief should not be a returnable problem; because everything is drawn at right angles, there is no way that the line of division _could_ connect to the corner."
    [Caer Galen] - (Device): "The PicDic implies that the mount can be free-floating (or such has been allowed in the past) ; it states [PicDic 1ed pg. 73]: "Mount: if the mount is not issuant from base, but cut off at the bottom, it must be blazoned 'couped'.""

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Passed as "Per bend sinister indented purpure and Or, a sun and a trimount couped counterchanged."

  3. Alisaundre la Couturière. New Name.

  4. Caer Galen, Shire of
    "Alisaundre" is found in Withycombe, page 14, under the heading "Alexandra". An early 14th century English legendary gives "Alisaundre" as the name of the mother of St. Thomas of Canterbury. "la Couturière" is found in Dauzat, page 215 under "Couture - Couturière" 12th century; the masculine, eliminated by "tailor" in the 16th century; was taken again in the 19th century and was specialized for female costumes. She will not accept major changes and is interested in having her name be authentic for the French language/culture.

    ACTION: Name Passed.

  5. Caerthe, Barony of. New Badge. Or, a dragon passant gules, a bordure embattled sable.

  6. [Caer Galen] - (Badge): "Conflict: Ludwig Grün (August of 1998) (via Meridies): Or, a dragon segreant gules, a bordure embattled sable, with one difference for position between segreant and passant."
    [Trefoil] - (Badge): "The bordure is too narrow"

    ACTION: Badge Returned for conflict with Ludwig Grun (August of 1998) (via Meridies): Or, a dragon segreant gules, a bordure embattled sable, with one difference for position between segreant and passant.

  7. Chavah bat Mordecai. New Name and Device. Per fess purpure and vert, a shooting star bendwise sinister argent.

  8. Caer Galen, Shire of
    "Chavah" is the anglicized form of the Hebrew name "Chaiya" (pronounced with a "ch" as in Gaelic or German). It appears to be one form of the name that was turned into "Eve" in English. Children who were ill were sometimes given "Chaiya" or "Chaim" (which means "life") as a new or additional name to confuse the evil eye. (From Kaganoff, B. "A Dictionary of Jewish Names and their History.) The full report on this name can be found at http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?328+0 At the bottom of that article is a footnote: "The Hebrew spelling of Chavah given here is incorrect; the name is spelled het-vav-heh in Genesis 3:20. However, it is not clear that Chaiya is in fact derived from Chavah and therefore that this spelling is appropriate. Chaiya is identical to the feminine singular form of the Hebrew adjective "living", so we recommend using the Hebrew spelling of that word, het-yud-heh." See also the article at http://hlsl.site.yahoo.net/hlsl/eve.html "bat" is simply the hebrew patronymic meaning "daughter of". "Mordecai" is found in A Dictionary of Jewish Names and Their History (Benzion Kaganoff, 1978) pages 43, 47, 157 (under "Gompertz"), 176 (under "Meisel", where it is dated back to the middle of the 16th century). She will not accept major changes and is interested in having her name be authentic for the Jewish language/culture. A "shooting star" is the same as a comet but has its head to base by default.

    [Trefoil] - (Name): "It is our understanding that the 'ch' is pronounced more like a 'kh' than 'ch'"
    [Caer Galen] - (Device): "Close: Esmirelda Dancingstar (March of 1978): Purpure, a shooting star bendwise sinister Or, with one difference for the field (per fess purpure and vert vs Chavah's purpure), and one difference for the Comet Or vs. Chavah's Argent."

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Passed.

  9. Chiara della Luna. New Name and Device. Sable, a crescent and on a chief argent three ermine spots gules.

  10. Caerthe, Barony of
    "Chiara" is found on a website linked from the College of Saint Gabriel titled Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence of 1427 by Arval Benicoeur (Josh Mittleman). http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catasto/ It is a list of Italian feminine names from Florence in the 15th century drawn from Census and Property Survey of Florentine Domains in the Province of Tuscany, 1427-1480. By David Herlihy and Christiane Klapisch-Zuber. Machine readable data file. Online Catasto of 1427 Version 1.1. Online Florentine Renaissance Resources: Brown University, Providence, R.I., 1996. The database identifies 1562 women who share 255 separate names. "Chiara" is on the list of names which occur fewer than 5 times. The byname, "della Luna" is documented using another St. Gabriel website titled Family Names Appearing in the Catasto of 1427 by Arval Benicoeur (Josh Mittleman). http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/family_names.html She will accept changes.

    [Caer Galen] - (Device): "No conflicts found."

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Passed.

  11. Citadel of the Southern Pass, Barony of. New Order Name for "Order of the Archers of Agincourt" and Badge. Azure, between two piles inverted argent, a pheon Or.

  12. This is obviously an award for archers which is intended to invoke glorious images of the English archers in the battle of Agincourt, won by Henry V, October 25, 1415. This image has become a horrid cliche in the SCA since anyone doing their homework would discover that there were thousands of French crossbowmen who were not allowed to fire on the English so that the French knights could capture them for ransom. It was not so much the English archers that won the day, but mud and French greed. But I digress... The structure of the order name strikes me as odd. The submitting herald declared that this is similar to the "Order of the Defenders of Thermopylae", which was registered to the Barony in September 1988. Unfortunately, it was not registered as "Defenders of Thermopylae" but simply as "Order of Thermopylae." Those who are given the award are styled as "Defenders of Thermopylae". I believe the same thing will be required here. Have it registered as "Order of Agincourt" and style those who receive it as "Archers of Agincourt". Unfortunately "Order of Agincourt" conflicts with the English title "Agincourt King of Arms." The unusual style of the badge is grandfathered to the Barony.

    [al-Jamal] - (Order Name): "I'm afraid that at the very least, "Archers of" will need to be dropped, for the same reason that "Companions of" was dropped from the Order of Thermopylae: "As Crescent noted, the modification of the name to drop the "Companions of" materially lowers the twitch factor since the implication no longer is present that the members of the order are veterans of that epic battle (or even in some way the peers of that gallant, if suicidal, band)." Agincourt is, if anything, even _more_ well-known in the SCA than Thermopylae, and so the "twitch factor" is even higher here. However, as noted in the commentary in the LoI, "Agincourt King of Arms" is a protected name and so "Order of Agincourt" is not registrable because it conflicts with it."
    [Trefoil] - (Order Name): "Lord Rampart neglected to include the rest of the documentation which included a discussion of a variety of period orders named after events and battles as follows: There is copious precedence for order names coming from famous battles or other special events and subsequently being conferred upon those not actually participating in the battle or event. The Order of the Golden Fleece dates to 1429 Used in both Austria and Spain; The Annunciation dates to 1355 Savoy; The Tower and the Sword dates to 1459 Portugal; Calatrava dates to 1219 Castile; The Bath dates to 10c England; The Garter dates to 1344 England; Most of these are still in use today and no one, or very few, even in the time period listed, actually participated in the event/battle after which the Order was named. The Defenders of Thermopolae was used ONLY to document Citadel's prior use of 'Defenders' in support of 'Archers'. However, Their Excellencies and the Seneschal of the Barony have given me permission to pass on to Lord WhiteStag that they will accept a name change to "The Order of Agincourt" as suggested by Lord Rampart. An aside to Lord Rampart - it wasn't that the French 'weren't allowed' to fire. The crossbows didn't have the range or the accuracy of the English Longbows. Also, the French didn't think they'd need to fire because of their superior numbers. By the time they figured out they were in trouble and tried to close to range, it was too late."

    ACTION: Order Name will be sent to Laurel for special appeal from Trefoil. It will likely be returned for conflict with Agincourt King of Arms. Badge Passed.

  13. Constance Warwick of Wyndermere. New Name and Device. Per chevron argent and azure, two roses azure seeded Or and a cross patonce argent.

  14. Citadel of the Southern Pass, Barony of
    "Constance" is found in Withycombe, page 72, under its own heading, dated to use in England from the Norman conquest. It was borne by one of the daughters of the Conquerer and soon became common. "Warwick" is found in Reaney and Wilson, page 477, under its own heading. It simply means "from Warwick" and variants are dated to as early as 1086. "Windermere" is a British lake measuring over 10 miles located in the Cumbria lake district in the NW of England. It is also the name of a town built near the lake. The documentation provided is from a website, http://www.netsync.net/users/obrienaj/abtwmere.htm which gives its location and uses, but not a date of origin. It is the site of an ancient Roman fort named Galava, built circa 79 c.e., (which is completely irrelevant, but three different sources were submitted to document this!) Reaney documents lots of period spelling variants using wind/wynd. The problem here is that this name uses two locative bynames. She will allow the middle element to be changed to "Warrick", an occupational byname found in Reaney and Wilson, page 477, which even R&W concedes is often confused with Warwick. If an element needs to be dropped, she would prefer to keep "Wyndermere", (which wasn't dated to period.) She is interested in having her name be authentic for "Britain 12-1300". The device is close but clear of Lora Ann Ros (10/99 Calontir): Per chevron argent and azure, two roses and a dragon rampant, a bordure counterchanged.

    [Green Anchor] - (Name): "I wonder if this is the same person who submitted "Sabra Constance Warwick von Dorn Rose" in Calontir. It was on an internal LoI dated 4/13/96. I'm not sure of its disposition, but think that it was returned by Saker. (The accompanying device submission was completely different from this one.)"
    [Margaret] - (Name): "The Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names (A.D.Mills, 1991) gives the following entry for 'Windermere' : 12th century - Winandermere, and gives the meaning as 'lake of a man called Vinandr' (OScand pers. name, genitive -ar) + OE 'mere'. She is looking for a version for 12-1300,this is as close as I have. I don't know if this dictionary is recognised as a good source by the CoH."
    [Trefoil] - (Name): "Lord Rampart has misunderstood the documentation. The date of the site of the Roman Fort is significant since it was built on Lake Wyndermere in 79 c.e. indicating the Lake's existence during that period. The other 'sources' were included to document the location of the Lake and it's name to period, not the fort."
    [Caer Galen] - (Device): "Is this a legal per chevron. I believe she should draw per chevron deeper. Close: Lora Ann Ros (October of 1999) Per chevron argent and azure, two roses and a dragon rampant, a bordure counterchanged. 1 difference for the addition of the bordure, but is there one for the change of the dragon rampant to the cross patonce? We believe so, but it is worth mentioning."

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Passed.

  15. Eirne inghean Domnall. Name Resubmission (K) and Device Resubmission (K). Argent, a shamrock vert, on a chief azure a rose Or barbed vert.

  16. Citadel of the Southern Pass, Barony of
    Her previous name submission, Erin Rose nic Daniel of Tara, was returned on the May 2001 Letter of Response for using a modern American given name, a second given name, for which there is no evidence in period Irish at all (and which has been cause for return or modification of submissions in the past), a modern patronymic connector, and an unusable locative. "Tara" is the traditional high seat of Irish kings, not a place that people are from. "Éirne" is found in O'C&M, page 89, under the heading Érne. In Irish legend Érne is daughter of Búrc Búiredach and Lough Erne is named after her. "Domnall" is found in O'C&M, page 75. This is the ninth most popular name in early Ireland. It was the name of five high kings. As a patronymic, it should be lenited to "Domhnaill". If her name must be changed she cares most about the language/culture and meaning, which she defines as "Erin daughter of Daniel". She is interested in having her name be authentic for 1590 Ireland. Her previous device, identical to this one, was returned for a redraw. The rose was colored orange rather than yellow. Close but clear of Myles of the Shamrock (5/73): Argent, a shamrock vert. 1 CD for adding the chief RfS X.4.b, and 1 CD for adding the tertiary RfS X.4.i.

    [Trefoil] - (Name): "The Lady is comfortable with the patronymic lenition to Domhnaill."
    [Caer Galen] - (Device): "Irish, with shamrocks? Inconceivable. This would be so much better with 2 or 3 roses in chief."

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Passed.

  17. Eirne inghean Domnall. Badge Resubmission (K). (Fieldless) A rose Or slipped and leaved in bend sinister surmounted on the slip by a shamrock vert.

  18. Citadel of the Southern Pass, Barony of
    Her previous badge, identical to this one, was returned on the May 2001 LoR for a redraw. The rose was orange instead of yellow. The layout strikes me as being extremely odd, but I can't find any specific rules or precedents to return it.

    ACTION: Badge Passed.

  19. Ilaria Jacqueline Montrevel. New Name and Device. Per bend sinister embattled argent and azure, four gouttes-de-sang in cross and three compass stars Or.

  20. Scorpions Hollow, Shire of
    "Ilaria" is documented using a website about the tomb of Ilaria del Carretto, who died in 1405. http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/html/q/quercia/bologna/ilaria.html "Jacqueline" is found in Withycombe, page 170, as a French diminutive of Jacques, found in England from time to time from the 13th to 17th century. "Montreval" is a city in the French Rhone Alps. A map was provided showing Montreval to be just NW of Geneve, but no source documentation was provided and nothing which dates the name to period. I could find nothing in my sources or on the web. Any help here would be appreciated. There is no doubt that there was contact between France and Italy in period. A name combining elements from each culture would not be terribly unusual, though it would probably favor the spelling of one or the other. Using double given names was fashionable in late period France according to Withycombe, page xliii. If a name element must be dropped, she would prefer to keep "Ilaria". She will allow changes and is interested in having her name be authentic for a French/Italian border name.

    [al-Jamal] - (Name): "National Geographic's map page (http://plasma.nationalgeographic.com/mapmachine/) lists three Montrevel's in France, the first one being near the Swiss (and therefore Italian) border."
    [Margaret] - (Name): "I realised when I saw this on the LoP, that I had not given a very good cover letter for it. She originally wanted Montrevil, but couldn't tell me where she found that - it appears that Montrevil may be a medieval spelling of Montreuil, with the 'v' and the 'u' being interchangable. However, I could find no documentation for Montrevil as spelled like that except for on one geneaology page that had no docs with it, nor could I find any documentation that the Frankish language also used 'u' and 'v' interchangeably, as the English did. As Montrevel was the closest we could find, that is what is submitted. I still have some information pending from the City of Montrevel sur Bresse itself to find out how old the city name is, but I am not holding my breath."
    [Caer Galen] - (Name): "www.chateaudelafaye.ifrance.com/history.htm states that the Montrevel family built a castle around 1240, so Montrevel is period."

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Passed.

  21. Michael Patrick MacBain. Device Resubmission (K). Quarterly sable and purpure, a ram's skull cabossed and a bordure argent semy of trefoils sable.

  22. al-Barran, Barony of
    His name was registered in April of 1998 via the Outlands. His first device attempt, Quarterly sable and purpure, a ram's skull cabossed, was returned from kingdom in December 1999 for conflict. His second device submission, Purpure, on a pale argent two shamrocks sable, overall a ram's skull cabossed counterchanged., was returned in December 2000 for counterchanging an animate object across an ordinary. "We don't allow counterchanging of animate objects over ordinaries." (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR September 1996, p. 13)

    [Caer Galen] - (Device): "Draw the bordure fatter, please."
    [Trefoil] - (Device): "The bordure is too narrow. Also, the blazon can eliminate the word 'cabossed' since a 'skull' is, by default 'cabossed'."

    ACTION: Device Passed.

  23. Mór ingen Cathail. New Name and Device. Per pale vert and Or, a dragon couchant to sinister and a wolf couchant counterchanged.

  24. Caerthe, Barony of
    "Mór" is found in O'C&M, page 139, where it is said to be the most popular female name in use in later medieval Ireland. "Cathail" is the genetive form of "Cathal", also found in O'C&M, page 47, where it is said to be one of the most common names in Ireland in the early middle ages. Great name! The device will obviously have to be returned for the appearance of marshalling as per RfS XI.3.

    [al-Jamal] - (Device): "Well, I _was_ going to say that this fell afoul of RfS XI.3. and would have to be returned, but since that was already noted in the ILoP...."
    [Green Anchor] - (Device): "Besides the marshalling problem, this is poor design, as the beasts can't even approximately fit their spaces. Better would be to have them rampant or to have them couchant in pale on a field parted per fess. This latter arrangement would have the advantage of removing the technical appearance of marshalling."
    [Trefoil] - (Device): ""Per pale ... a dragon and a wolf couchant respectant counterchanged". The word 'both' could be inserted before 'couchant', but is unnecessary."

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Returned for the appearance of marshalling.

  25. Nichola Hawoc. New Name.

  26. Hawk's Hollow, Canton of
    "Nichola" is found in A List of Feminine Personal Names found in Scottish Records by Talan Gwynek, http://www.panix.com/~mittle/names/talan/scottishfem/ "Hawoc" is found in Reaney and Wilson, page 221, under the heading "Hawk". Willelmus filius Hawoc 1240-5; Black. She is most interested in having her name be authentic for 14-15th century "Scottish".

    [al-Jamal] - (Name): "The trick when someone wants a "Scottish" name is, of course, that there are two major language groups: Gaelic and Scots. Does she say for which one she wants her name to be authentic?"
    [Caer Galen] - (Name): "Whatever '14-15th c Scottish' means, the cited R&W does not necessarily support the proposition that Hawoc is Scottish, being that the cites in R&W are from English rolls cc. 1100-1400."

    ACTION: Name Passed.

  27. Rhain McHenrik. New Name and Device. Azure,a pall inverted Or between two tygres combattant and a Celtic cross argent.

  28. Citadel of the Southern Pass, Barony of
    "Rhain" is found in British Kings and Queens: The Complete Biographical Encyclopedia of the Kings and Queens of Great Britain by Mike Ashley, Barnes & Noble, New York. According to this source Rhain was the ruler of the Gaelic settlement of Dyfed in the 730's. The client originally wanted "Ryon", but couldn't document the spelling with the "o". The Gaelic form, according to O'C&M, page 155, is Rígán: Ríoghán, pronounced roughly ree-ain. "McHenrik" is found in Black, page 509, under the heading MacHendrie, dated to 1590. He will not accept major changes, cares most about the sound and language/culture, and is interested in having his name be authentic for the British language/culture. He has already accepted awards with this name making him less likely to be willing to change it. He would accept an all Gaelic version. According to Black, the Gaelic form of McHenrik is MacEanruig, not dated.

    [Green Anchor] - (Name): "As it stands, a 850-year mismatch between the two names is a little much, even by our lenient standards of temporal compatibility. The kingdom of Dyfed was in southwestern Wales, and "Rhain" is found in Gruffudd, p.81, with citations from the 5th and 9th centuries, though the former may be mythical. Since the only "British" culture in Scotland was the Welsh-speaking kingdom of Strathclyde, this may well work, but it still needs a surname that matches it better. I'm doubtful that any form of "Henry" was in Scotland that early."
    [Trefoil] - (Name): "Since Rhain was the ruler of the Gaelic settlement of Dyfed in 730 when it had not yet overrun with Romans, can one not extrapolate that Rhain is, also, a Gaelic form of the name? We agree that Rigan and Rioghan are ALSO variants of the name, but Rhain is documented as a Gaelic name to period and the submitter would prefer to keep it. The client would accept MacEanruig in order to have an all-Gaelic name."
    [Green Anchor] - (Device): "This is neither a proper Celtic cross nor the "equal-armed Celtic cross" shown in the PicDic. It is a sort of hybrid of the two. The mini-emblazon also seems to show some sort of fimbriation of the cross part.."

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Passed.

  29. Santiago Carrillo de Guadalupe. New Name and Device. Purpure, on a pile wavy argent a savage's head cabossed vert.

  30. Drygestan, Shire of
    "Santiago" is documented using a website titled 16th-century Spanish Men's Names by Elsbeth Anne Roth (Kathy Van Stone). It is a list of some men's names found in a catalog of passengers from Spain to the Americas from the 16th century. The rest of the name comes from another website titled Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century by Juliana de Luna (Julia Smith). In the Names from the Account Books of Isabel la Catolica (1477-1504) there appears a Juan Carrillo de Guadalupe. He will accept changes and is most interested in having his name be authentic for the 15th-16th century Spanish language/culture.

    [Trefoil] - (Name): "Except for the absence of his Saint's name (infrequently published), this is a lovely Spanish name that is well constructed."
    [Caer Galen] - (Device): "Conflict: Isabeau d'Orleans (March of 1995):Purpure, on a pile wavy argent a lark rising wings elevated and addorsed azure. There is only one CD for the change from a lark rising azure to savage's head cabossed vert, since it is a charge on charge."

    ACTION: Name Passed. Device Returned for conflict with Isabeau d'Orleans.

  31. Valréas de Fraier. New Name and Device. Per chevron sable and Or, in chief a heart issuant from the line of division and in base a cup counterchanged.

  32. Scorpions Hollow, Shire of
    "Valréas is found in Dictionaire Étymologique de Noms de Famille by Maire-Therese Morlet, page 950, under the heading Valleriaz, dated to 1110. "Fraier" is found on page 428 of the same source under the heading Fray, Fraye. She will accept changes, the desired gender of her name is female, and she is most interested in having her name be authentic for the French language/culture. The only precedent I could find in regard to the heart being issuant from the line of division is that it must have good contrast with the other half of the field, which this does.

    [Green Anchor] - (Name): "Morlet is a surname book. Is this given name actually said to be such rather than a surname? If so, we should have a little more info than just a citation. If not, she still needs a given name."
    [Caer Galen] - (Name): "Valréas is neither a first name nor a feminine name, it is a placename of a place in France. Dauzat, Dictionaire des noms de famille et prenoms states: "Valréas: name of a place of origin (Vaucluse); often a name of an Israelite." I read this to mean that it is a surname. Does some other source state otherwise? Even the title of her source, Dictionaire Etymologique de Noms de Famille, means 'etymological dictionary of family names' (i.e. surnames). Prénom is the French term for a first or Christian name. [http://fr.news.yahoo.com/quid/v_8351.html] (translated Louis&Babelfish) "Locality : Valréas Co-ordinates : Postal code : 84 600 Department : Vaucluse (84) Area : Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur Key figures : Population : 9 409 inhabitants Altitude : 276 m · Area : 5797 ha General historical information : City in 1110 " Valleriaz ", then Co-seigniory of Mévouillon and Ripert. The lords of Ripert built the castle (Castrum Riperti); stronghold of the barons de Montauban-Mévouillon in the13th century. Dragonet de Montauban granted title to Valréas (1231), the barony was yielded to the Humbert dauphin around 1294, who sold it to the pope in 1317 : Valréas then became a significant jurisdiction of the pontifical State. During the wars of religion, the Baron of Adrets tried to seize the city, but he was repulsed by the catholic troops of the Count de Suze : a fatal combat followed, and calm returned only after two years of combat. The Revolution, then the White Terror, caused disorders and victims. Massacres in 1815 at the Cour des Prisons. In 1791, Valréas was integrated into the department of Drôme, but in 1793, the creation of the department of Vaucluse restored the previous situation. In June 1944, 53 inhabitants were shot by the Germans. Valréas is the capital of L'Enclave ; this consisting of the communities of Valréas, Cricket, Richerenches and Visan, is insulated in Drôme but formed part of the department of Vaucluse ; its accidental constitution happened in the 14th century : the popes wanting to consolidate their state towards north had repurchased a certain number of strongholds, of which those of current Enclave and others, close, currently located in Drôme ; the king of France wanting to limit the power of Saint-Siège, refused to yield to him the narrow strip of ground to the east of Tulette (which formed part of Dauphiné) separating Comtat from the area of Valréas. Fatherland of the cardinal and academician Maury (1746-1817), of the General Bonnet of Honnières, killed with Eylau in 1807, of the lieutenant-général Viscount of Bruges (1754-1820), of the lieutenant-General François-Joseph Darut de Grandpré (1726-1793).""
    [Trefoil] - (Name): "The Dictioniare Etynologique de Noms de Famille is a Dictionary of Family Names which, to the French, are generally surnames. While there are given names in the book, they are specifically stated as such with examples. No such example is provided and Valleriaz is not the usual construction of a given French name since iaz is normally used for surnames having developed from the patronimic lenition early in period. Is Valreas specifically documented as a given name?"
    [Green Anchor] - (Device): "If the heart were truly issuant from the line, not all of it would be visible. This one is "slightly conjoined to the line of division". I'm dubious that it is typical of period practice."

    ACTION: Name Returned for lack of evidence that "Valreas" was used as a given name in period. Device Pended for a redraw of how the heart conjoins to the line of division and for a registerable name or further documentation that "Valreas" is a given name.

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